Categories
History : History

Introduction How do historians know what they know? How is what historians know

Introduction
How do historians know what they know? How is what historians know substantiated? What are the limits of historians’ work? These are all important questions to consider when studying any historical subject or era. We take these questions to task in this important assignment that helps lay the foundation for future historical study.
Summary
Adapted from materials originally from the Library of Congress’s American Memory Lesson, “This lesson introduces students to primary sources—what they are, their great variety, and how they can be analyzed. The lesson begins with an activity that helps students understand the historical record. Students then learn techniques for analyzing primary sources.” Finally, students apply these techniques to analyze primary sources about the so-called “Savage.”
Steps
Note: Compile all your responses to the Chapter 17 assignment into one Microsoft Word document that you will submit via the Blackboard Assignment feature. Read the following instructions and information carefully and complete all parts of this assignment.
1.    Read completely and carefully the information provided at the end of these steps under the grayed heading “Preliminary Reading for the Assignment.” 
2.    Next complete in thought and writing the “Mindwalk Activity” provided below these instructions and the information you read in Step 1.
3.    Once you have read all the material under the “Preliminary Reading for the Assignment” heading and completed the “Mindwalk Activity,” you are ready to practice your skills with an actual primary source from America in the late 19th century.  You will practice by reading the primary source provided under the grayed heading “Primary Source for the Assignment.”
4.    After you have read the “Primary Source for the Assignment” on the so-called “Savage,” answer the seven “Questions to Answer on the Primary Source” at the end of this document.  Compose your answers based on your reading and interpretation of the primary source, including relevant excerpts from the document to support your responses.
Preliminary Reading for the Assignment
Primary and Secondary Sources
Historians use a wide variety of sources to answer questions about the past. In their research, history scholars use both primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources are actual records that have survived from the past, such as letters, photographs, articles of clothing. Secondary sources are accounts of the past created by people writing about events sometime after they happened.
For example, your history textbook is a secondary source. Someone wrote most of your textbook long after historical events took place. Your textbook may also include some primary sources, such as direct quotes from people living in the past or excerpts from historical documents.
People living in the past left many clues about their lives. These clues include both primary and secondary sources in the form of books, personal papers, government documents, letters, oral accounts, diaries, maps, photographs, reports, novels and short stories, artifacts, coins, stamps, and many other things. Historians call all of these clues together the historical record.
The Historical Record
The historical record is huge. It contains literally billions of pieces of evidence about the past. Despite its huge size, the historical record gives us just a tiny glimpse of the past. Most of what happened in the past was never documented. Many sources of information about the past have been lost or destroyed. Some primary sources were accumulated simply by accident.
But some historical sources were created and saved by people interested in recording history. People kept journals, wrote diaries and autobiographies, recorded family trees, and saved business and personal letters and papers.
How can the historical record be both huge and limited? What kind of historical records do you leave behind in your daily life?
Analysis of Primary Sources
Historians analyze historical sources in different ways. First, historians think about where, when and why a document was created. They consider whether a source was created close in location and time to an actual historical event. Historians also think about the purpose of a source. Was it a personal diary intended to be kept private? Was the document prepared for the public?
Some primary sources may be judged more reliable than others, but every source is biased in some way. As a result, historians read sources skeptically and critically. They also cross-check sources against other evidence and sources. Historians follow a few basic rules to help them analyze primary sources. Read these rules below.
Time and Place Rule
To judge the quality of a primary source, historians use the time and place rule. This rule says the closer in time and place a source and its creator were to an event in the past, the better the source will be. Based on the time and place rule, better primary sources (starting with the most reliable) might include:
•    Direct traces of the event;
•    Accounts of the event, created at the time it occurred, by firsthand observers and participants;
•    Accounts of the event, created after the event occurred, by firsthand observers and participants;
•    Accounts of the event, created after the event occurred, by people who did not participate or witness the event, but who used interviews or evidence from the time of the event.
Bias Rule
The historians’ second rule is the bias rule. It says that every source is biased in some way. Documents tell us only what the creator of the document thought happened, or perhaps only what the creator wants us to think happened. As a result, historians follow these bias rule guidelines when they review evidence from the past:
•    Every piece of evidence and every source must be read or viewed skeptically and critically.
•    No piece of evidence should be taken at face value. The creator’s point of view must be considered.
•    Each piece of evidence and source must be cross-checked and compared with related sources and pieces of evidence.
Types of Primary Sources
When analyzing primary sources, historians consider the type of primary source under study. Different primary sources were created for different reasons. Knowing the different types of primary sources will help you evaluate the reliability of primary sources. Read about the different types of primary sources below.
Published Documents
Some primary sources are published documents. They were created for large audiences and were distributed widely. Published documents include books, magazines, newspapers, government documents, non-government reports, literature of all kinds, advertisements, maps, pamphlets, posters, laws, and court decisions.
When reviewing published documents, remember that just because something was published does not make it truthful, accurate, or reliable. Every document has a creator, and every creator has a point of view, blind spots, and biases. Also remember that even biased and opinionated sources can tell us important things about the past.
Unpublished Documents
Many types of unpublished documents have been saved, and can be used as primary sources. These include personal letters, diaries, journals, wills, deeds, family Bibles containing family histories, school report cards, and many other sources. Unpublished business records such as correspondence, financial ledgers, information about customers, board meeting minutes, and research and development files also give clues about the past.
Unpublished documents often come from community organizations, churches, service clubs, political parties, and labor unions in the form of membership lists, meeting minutes, speeches, financial and other records. Government at all levels creates a variety of unpublished records. These include police and court records, census records, tax and voter lists, departmental reports, and classified documents.
Unlike published documents, unpublished records may be difficult to find because few copies exist. For example, personal letters may be found only in the possession of the person to whom the letters were sent. Letters of famous or remarkable people may be collected and eventually published. Keep in mind that letter writers did not intend (and perhaps could not imagine) that their letters would be read by more than one person. Because unpublished documents were seldom meant to be read by the public, they provide interesting clues about the past.
Oral Traditions/Oral Histories
Oral traditions and oral histories provide another way to learn about the past from people with firsthand knowledge of historical events. Recently, spoken words that make up oral histories have gained importance as primary sources. Historians and others find out about the lives of ordinary people through spoken stories and tales. Oral histories provide important historical evidence about people, especially minority groups, who were excluded from mainstream publications or did not leave behind written primary sources.
Oral histories are as old as human beings. Before the invention of writing, information passed from generation to generation through the spoken word. Many people around the world continue to use oral traditions to pass along knowledge and wisdom. Interviews and recordings of community elders and witnesses to historical events provide exciting stories, anecdotes, and other information about the past.
Visual Documents and Artifacts
Visual documents include photographs, films, paintings, and other types of artwork. Because visual documents capture moments in time, they can provide evidence of changes over time. Visual documents include evidence about a culture at specific moments in history: its customs, preferences, styles, special occasions, work, and play.
Like other primary source documents, a visual document has a creator with a point of view — such as a painter, sculptor, or film maker. Even photographs were created by photographers using film and cameras to create desired effects.
Think about the creator’s point of view when you review visual documents. What was the creator’s purpose? Why this pose? Why that perspective? Why that framing? Why this distance? Why this subject? What was included? What was excluded? Using visual documents as primary sources requires careful analysis of the content and the point of view of the creator.    
Mindwalk Activity
1.    Think about (“mind walk” through) all the activities you were involved in during the past 24 hours. List as many of these activities as you can remember.
2.    For each activity on your list, write down what evidence, if any, your activities might have left behind.
3.    Review your entire list, and what you wrote about evidence your activities left behind. Then answer these questions:
a.    Which of your daily activities were most likely to leave trace evidence behind? 
b.    What, if any, of that evidence might be preserved for the future? Why?
c.    What might be left out of an historical record of your activities? Why?
d.    What would a future historian be able to tell about your life and your society based on evidence of your daily activities that might be preserved for the future? What might the materials tell archaeologists about your family, community, region, and/or nation?
4.    Now think about a more public event currently happening (a court case, election, public controversy, law being debated), and answer these questions:
a.    What kinds of evidence might this event leave behind?
b.    Who records information about this event?
c.    For what purpose are different records of this event made?
5.    Based on this activity, write one sentence that describes how the historical record can be huge and limited at the same time.
Primary Source for the Assignment
“A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man…. 
The Indians under our care remained savage, because forced back upon themselves and away from association with English-speaking and civilized people [as a result of segregation on isolated reservations], and because of our savage example and treatment of them. . . .  We have never made any attempt to civilize them with the idea of taking them into the nation, and all of our policies have been against citizenizing and absorbing them.  Although some of the policies now prominent are advertised to carry them into citizenship and consequent association and competition with other masses of the nation, they are not, in reality, calculated to do this…. 
We make our greatest mistake in feeding our civilization to the Indians instead of feeding the Indians to our civilization. America has different customs and civilizations from Germany. What would be the result of an attempt to plant American customs and civilization among the Germans in Germany, demanding that they shall become thoroughly American before we admit them to the country? Now, what we have all along attempted to do for and with the Indians is just exactly that, and nothing else. We invite the Germans to come into our country and communities, and share our customs, our civilization, to be of it; and the result is immediate success. Why not try it on the Indians? Why not invite them into experiences in our communities? Why always invite and compel them to remain a people unto themselves? 
It is a great mistake to think that the Indian is born an inevitable savage. He is born a blank, like all the rest of us. Left in the surroundings of savagery, he grows to possess a savage language, superstition, and life. We, left in the surroundings of civilization, grow to possess a civilized language, life, and purpose. Transfer the infant white to the savage surroundings, he will grow to possess a savage language, superstition, and habit. Transfer the savage-born infant to the surroundings of civilization, and he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit. These results have been established over and over again beyond all question; and it is also well established that those advanced in life, even to maturity, of either class, lose already acquired qualities belonging to the side of their birth, and gradually take on those of the side to which they have been transferred. 
As we have taken into our national family seven millions of Negroes, and as we receive foreigners at the rate of more than five hundred thousand a year, and assimilate them, it would seem that the time may have arrived when we can very properly make at least the attempt to assimilate our two hundred and fifty thousand Indians, using this proven potent line, and see if that will not end this vexed question and remove them from public attention, where they occupy so much more space than they are entitled to either by numbers or worth. 
The school…is an attempt on the part of the government to do this. The school…has always planted treason to the tribe and loyalty to the nation at large. It has preached against colonizing Indians, and in favor of individualizing them. It has demanded for them the same multiplicity of chances which all others in the country enjoy…. [The school] fills young Indians with the spirit of loyalty to the stars and stripes, and then moves them out into our communities to show by their conduct and ability that the Indian is no different from the white or the colored, that he has the inalienable right to liberty and opportunity that the white and the negro have. It does not dictate to him what line of life he should fill, so it is an honest one. It says to him that, if he gets his living by the sweat of his brow, and demonstrates to the nation that he is a man, he does more good for his race than hundreds of his fellows who cling to their tribal communistic surroundings….
When we cease to teach the Indian that he is less than a man; when we recognize fully that he is capable in all respects as we are, and that he only needs the opportunities and privileges which we possess to enable him to assert his humanity and manhood; when we act consistently towards him in accordance with that recognition; when we cease to fetter him to conditions which keep him in bondage, surrounded by retrogressive influences; when we allow him the freedom of association and the developing influences of social contact – then the Indian will quickly demonstrate that he can be truly civilized, and he himself will solve the question of what to do with the Indian.” 
Questions to Answer on the Primary Source

1.    What is the document author’s gender? Why do you draw this conclusion?
2.    What is the document author’s race/nationality/ethnicity? Why do you draw this conclusion?
3.    What are the document author’s beliefs? Why do you draw these conclusions?
4.    What are the document author’s aspirations or goals? Why do you draw these conclusions?
5.    What are the document author’s prejudices? Why do you draw these conclusions?
6.    What else of historical value and relevance can you extract from your reading of the primary source? Explain.
7.    Who is the actual author of the document? (Make an educated and specific guess here. I’ll share the answer with you along with the feedback and grade on the assignment.)

Categories
History : History

Read through the materials and write a post on the topic below. We are going to

Read through the materials and write a post on the topic below. We are going to use Industrialization (or, the Second Industrial Revolution) as an overarching theme in this module and approach it from two different sides. The first is:
Consider the era of Reconstruction with its successes and failures, and discuss the impacts of industrialization.
First, give an overview of Reconstruction, then explain its successes and failures, and finally, connect it to a few (2-3, or more) examples of industrialization such as: railroads/shipbuilding and transportation, steel, textile manufacturing, oil, timber, agriculture and agricultural machinery, weapons production, alcohol, entertainment, publishing, and any others you might find.
Evaluation criteria
Please support your post and its analysis with material drawn from your sources, but make sure that all of the writing is your own – in other words, do not use direct quotes or paraphrases. First, learn the narrative parts (the things that happened in history), think about them, ask yourself questions about them, and then use the topic as a framework to explain your analysis.

Categories
History : History

For each reading, 1. Give a BRIEF (1-2 sentences) idea of what each text is abo

For each reading,
1. Give a BRIEF (1-2 sentences) idea of what each text is about. What is the main argument of each text? Following that, identify what you think the purpose of reading the text(s) is –that is, what is its significance in the larger context of what we are focusing on in class? Discuss what conclusions you came to and how you did so.
2. When you take note of something in the text as interesting or surprising, start to draw specific conclusions or implications. Remember that discussion is a space to explore possibilities rather than to have fully formed thoughts or well-supported arguments, as in a paper.
Try not to raise something in the text by just saying, “I thought it was interesting that…” Consider why the passage or example is significant, or what it reveals or implies about history (for example, “I think this passage was really interesting because etc etc”).
3. Some questions to consider: What are the central themes and arguments? What are your differing interpretations? What questions did the readings raise for you? What evidence does the author use to arrive at their conclusions? Is their argument convincing? How does this text change the way you think about the topic, or history? For example, what becomes central? What is missing from this study, and how does this affect the author’s analysis? Why is what you learned from this text significant to you?
4. How do these texts connect to each other (either similarly or differently); where or how do they intersect, etc?
5. Develop 2-3 questions that you would like for the class to discuss. Try to make these ‘why’ or ‘how’ questions.
*Remember: You are not summarizing any of the readings. Rather, you are “extracting” the most important ideas, themes, or questions you believe they offer.
For the Campbell text, read chapter 2 ONLY.
Do not use any external sources.
Approx 300+ words for each reading.

Categories
History : History

Final Research Paper Questions & Guidelines —Spring 2023 Final Research Paper NE

Final Research Paper Questions & Guidelines —Spring 2023
Final Research Paper NEEDS to include the following:
(1) 3-4 FULL pages, typed, double spaced, w/ full name, class name, time AND date) (2) use Times New Roman font 12 or comparable ONLY
(3) At Least 6 Sources***: (NEED @ LEAST 2 that are NOT a classroom source!!)
classroom sources:
Corbett’s US History (PDF) & “Terrance Roberts Essay” (PDF) Locke’s, The American Yawp https://www.americanyawp.com/ Lecture material
Embedded Weekly Videos
another online textbook http://www.ushistory.org/us/index.asp
Outside the class
Any legitimate website
Books & periodicals
◊ In-text citations or Footnotes/Endnotes will suffice
◊ It is common to cite sources 3-4 times per each full paged typed
◊ NOTE…if you do NOT cite, you will receive NO HIGHER than a 65% on the paper!!! (4) Page #s
(5) Thesis MUST BE UNDERLINED
(6) Margins NO LARGER THAN 1 INCH—YOU MAY NEED TO ADJUST YOUR MARGINS ACCORDINGLY!!!
(7) NEED A BIBLIOGRAPHY for ALL sources (both classroom and outside)
–NEEDLESS to say, this page does NOT count twd the 3-4 full page requirement ALL essays will be graded with a generic rubric
Any Questions or concerns: https://www.turnitin.com/help_pages/student_faq.asp?r=87.6295589277586#7
Final Research Papers
(NO LATE PAPERS ACCEPTED)
****Some students have inquired about the amount and type of sources required for the final research essay.
Please have at least 6 sources. 2 NEED to be books or periodicals that are NOT classroom sources…ie., Lee or Cobbs. You can use them (if they apply to your topic) but you’d also need 2 more books/periodicals that are not class required. I hope that helps to clarify a bit.
        PLEASE NOTE:
  ◊ ALL citations NEED TO BE BOLD in order to get full credit for them
       
1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and how did they directly affect the duration and outcome of the War? (Discussing: the USS Maine Explosion, Battle of San Juan Hill and Manila are mandatory!!)***

Categories
History : History

Final Research Paper Questions & Guidelines —Spring 2023 Final Research Paper NE

Final Research Paper Questions & Guidelines —Spring 2023
Final Research Paper NEEDS to include the following:
(1) 3-4 FULL pages, typed, double spaced, w/ full name, class name, time AND date) (2) use Times New Roman font 12 or comparable ONLY
(3) At Least 6 Sources***: (NEED @ LEAST 2 that are NOT a classroom source!!)
classroom sources:
Corbett’s US History (PDF) & “Terrance Roberts Essay” (PDF) Locke’s, The American Yawp https://www.americanyawp.com/ Lecture material
Embedded Weekly Videos
another online textbook http://www.ushistory.org/us/index.asp
Outside the class
Any legitimate website
Books & periodicals
◊ In-text citations or Footnotes/Endnotes will suffice
◊ It is common to cite sources 3-4 times per each full paged typed
◊ NOTE…if you do NOT cite, you will receive NO HIGHER than a 65% on the paper!!! (4) Page #s
(5) Thesis MUST BE UNDERLINED
(6) Margins NO LARGER THAN 1 INCH—YOU MAY NEED TO ADJUST YOUR MARGINS ACCORDINGLY!!!
(7) NEED A BIBLIOGRAPHY for ALL sources (both classroom and outside)
–NEEDLESS to say, this page does NOT count twd the 3-4 full page requirement ALL essays will be graded with a generic rubric
Any Questions or concerns: https://www.turnitin.com/help_pages/student_faq.asp?r=87.6295589277586#7
Final Research Papers
(NO LATE PAPERS ACCEPTED)
****Some students have inquired about the amount and type of sources required for the final research essay.
Please have at least 6 sources. 2 NEED to be books or periodicals that are NOT classroom sources…ie., Lee or Cobbs. You can use them (if they apply to your topic) but you’d also need 2 more books/periodicals that are not class required. I hope that helps to clarify a bit.
        PLEASE NOTE:
  ◊ ALL citations NEED TO BE BOLD in order to get full credit for them
       
1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and how did they directly affect the duration and outcome of the War? (Discussing: the USS Maine Explosion, Battle of San Juan Hill and Manila are mandatory!!)***

Categories
History : History

For each reading, 1. Give a BRIEF (1-2 sentences) idea of what each text is abo

For each reading,
1. Give a BRIEF (1-2 sentences) idea of what each text is about. What is the main argument of each text? Following that, identify what you think the purpose of reading the text(s) is –that is, what is its significance in the larger context of what we are focusing on in class? Discuss what conclusions you came to and how you did so.
2. When you take note of something in the text as interesting or surprising, start to draw specific conclusions or implications. Remember that discussion is a space to explore possibilities rather than to have fully formed thoughts or well-supported arguments, as in a paper.
Try not to raise something in the text by just saying, “I thought it was interesting that…” Consider why the passage or example is significant, or what it reveals or implies about history (for example, “I think this passage was really interesting because etc etc”).
3. Some questions to consider: What are the central themes and arguments? What are your differing interpretations? What questions did the readings raise for you? What evidence does the author use to arrive at their conclusions? Is their argument convincing? How does this text change the way you think about the topic, or history? For example, what becomes central? What is missing from this study, and how does this affect the author’s analysis? Why is what you learned from this text significant to you?
4. How do these texts connect to each other (either similarly or differently); where or how do they intersect, etc?
5. Develop 2-3 questions that you would like for the class to discuss. Try to make these ‘why’ or ‘how’ questions.
*Remember: You are not summarizing any of the readings. Rather, you are “extracting” the most important ideas, themes, or questions you believe they offer.
For the Campbell text, read chapter 2 ONLY.
Do not use any external sources.
Approx 300+ words for each reading.

Categories
History : History

    1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and

    1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and how did they directly affect the duration and outcome of the War? (Discussing: the USS Maine Explosion, Battle of San Juan Hill and Manila are mandatory!!)***

Categories
History : History

    1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and

   
1. What were the causes and major battles of the Spanish American War and how did they directly affect the duration and outcome of the War? (Discussing: the USS Maine Explosion, Battle of San Juan Hill and Manila are mandatory!!)***

Categories
History : History

Imagine you are a law clerk for a Supreme Court justice in 1944.  You have been

Imagine you are a law clerk for a Supreme Court justice in 1944.  You have been asked to provide that justice with a 300- to 400-word summary of the lower federal court decision, Lopez v. Seccombe. In your summary, include a brief account of the labor, social and ethnic atmosphere in the American Southwest that surround the case.

Categories
History : History

Chapter 2 mainly explains international competitions in terms of the concept “Ba

Chapter 2 mainly explains international competitions in terms of the concept “Balance of Power.” The chapter briefly discusses ancient history, including Chinese empires that engaged in “Balance of Power” with rulers of neighboring lands, yet the chapter’s main thesis begins in the 17th century when modern Western imperial states arose in Europe, following the Thirty Years war which resulted in the Westphalia Peace in 1638. It was the European states that colonized the world, including Britain’s effort to colonize most of North America in the 17th and 18th centuries.
“Balance of Power” suggests that international peace can best be preserved if strong states balance each other, holding in check the desire of political leaders to go to war. The idea is that heads of state will not resort to armed aggression if they feel a rival power has the strength to resist. Authors of our textbook say this “Balance” prevailed after 1638 until the early 1800s when the ambitions of leaders in revolutionary France, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, launched a continental military campaign against rival states. While Napoleon disrupted the peace, a new “Balance of Power” was created among European states after Napoleon’s defeat in an attempt to restore order in Europe, while allowing European colonial rulers to profit from possessions overseas.
The 19th century “Balance of Power” and overseas colonization were briefly challenged by Prussian-French and Russian-Turkish wars, but what finally disrupted them was Japan’s defeat of Russia in 1905, followed by the first and second World Wars. Going back to the 17th century, and most of the 18th century, the US did not exist as a state. Thus, it is not possible to ask about the role of US political leaders in Europe’s early “Balance of Power.” Through the late 19th century, US leaders were preoccupied with colonial expansion on the North American continent, rather than contests in Europe. In fact, US presidents preferred to prevent European heads of state from interfering in North America, thus they had no interest in becoming involved with contests inside Europe. All of this changed in the 20th century’s two World Wars, followed by the long Cold War.
Write an initial statement about US interest in “Balance of Power” in Europe since World War (1914-2022) using roughly 150 words, followed by at least two responses to other students in class which are at least 20 words in length. Do you think the US helped maintain “Balance of Power” in Europe between 1914 and 2022, or has the US disrupted “Balance of Power” in Europe? US policy changed across time, thus you might think of four phases: first, World War I and the interwar period running from 1914 to 1939; second, World War II and the early postwar years running from 1939 to 1949; third, the Cold War 1949-1989; and fourth, the post-Cold War era 1989-2022.
What did the US government do in each of the four phases above? Did politicians in Washington always help preserve peace in Europe via “Balance of Power,” or did they at times contribute to war in Europe? Lastly, what do you think about the current US role in the Ukraine war? Does the US role today in Ukraine help or hurt the interests of peace in Europe?